Spring feeding and fertilizers for strawberries: which ones are needed and when is it better to feed

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Spring is a time of creativity for gardeners. Summer residents and gardeners make planting plans, choose flowers and varieties of vegetables. The land is not yet overgrown with weeds, but perennial fruit and berry crops are already awakening. Perhaps the most beloved among them is strawberry. And the first thing to do for her at the beginning of the season is to feed her to give her strength to grow powerful bushes and large berries.

What fertilizers do strawberries need in spring

In the spring, before flowering, strawberries actively grow greenery. The volume of the harvest depends on how large the leaves and thick petioles are. Small berries will grow on frail bushes. In other words: the stronger and healthier the bush, the more large fruits it will have. But you cannot overfeed the strawberries, otherwise it will fatten, it will not tie the berries, and even worse, it can get burned and die. Therefore, fertilizers should always be applied with caution and do not exceed dosages.

Strawberries need a balanced diet for healthy foliage and large berries.

The building material for the green parts of any plant is nitrogen, which is what is needed in spring. Nitrogen is contained in mineral fertilizers, humus, mullein, bird droppings. In addition, strawberries need trace elements, but without nitrogen nutrition, they will be ineffective. If you add them in addition, like vitamins after the main course, the result will be noticeable. In particular, trace elements help to cope with stressful situations (drought, heavy rains, frosts), increase the resistance of strawberries to diseases, accelerate the growth, budding and ripening of fruits. At the same time, the berries grow larger, prettier and sweeter.

When to feed strawberries in spring

The timing of feeding depends on your capabilities, but the sooner the plants receive support, the better they will thank you.

  1. If your plot is near your home, or you have the opportunity to visit the garden in late winter or early spring, scatter dry fertilizers directly over the melted snow. They themselves will dissolve in puddles and go into the soil to the roots. This is done with mineral fertilizers and wood ash.
  2. If you get into the garden only after the earth dries out, apply fertilizer at the first loosening. Scatter them evenly over the bed, mix with the top layer of soil and water. Alternatively, apply liquid top dressing on wet ground.
  3. If there is no water on the site, the earth has dried out, then apply fertilizers before the rain or do foliar feeding on the leaves. It requires little water, you can bring it or bring it with you.

Any root dressing should be applied on damp ground, if possible in a liquid form. Do not allow dry granules to get to the roots and dissolve there. In this case, a concentrated solution will be obtained, which will burn the thinnest roots, namely, they work as capillaries - they deliver water and food to the bushes.

Video: tips for caring for strawberries, what and when to water

Mineral, organic and pharmacy food for strawberries

In the spring, before flowering, strawberries need only one nitrogen fertilization and one additional fertilization with microelements. The easiest option is to buy a complex mixture in the store, which contains all the valuable substances for this culture at once. There are many such nutritional complexes now being produced: Gumi-Omi, Agricola, Fertika and others marked for strawberries / strawberries. Pay special attention to the composition. The percentage of nitrogen (N) must be higher than the other elements.

There are a lot of options for spring dressing: ready-made complexes are suitable for beginner gardeners, and more experienced ones can make a nutrient mixture for strawberries on their own using organic fertilizers or pharmacy products.

Fertilizing with mineral fertilizers

In stores, you can most often find three nitrogen-containing fertilizers at an affordable price and with a small consumption of granules:

  • Urea (carbamide, carbonic acid diamide) of all mineral fertilizers contains the maximum amount of nitrogen - 46%. The rest is hydrogen, oxygen and carbon. When urea interacts with air, ammonia is formed, which evaporates. Therefore, urea must either be embedded in the soil or applied as a solution. Fertilizer has a slightly acidic reaction, close to neutral, so it can be applied on any soil.
  • Ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate) is a nitric acid salt that contains 35% nitrogen. The main disadvantage of this fertilizer is that it significantly increases the acidity of the soil, so it must be applied together with dolomite flour. But this same property is used to fight disease. By watering the leaves and the ground around the bushes with ammonium nitrate solution, you will get rid of fungi.
  • Nitroammofoska is a complex fertilizer containing all three important macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Different manufacturers produce different brands of the mixture under this name, and each of them has its own ratio of macronutrients. In addition, the disadvantage of this fertilizer is that it can be applied in the spring only if you did not fertilize the strawberries with superphosphate and potassium salt in the fall.

Photo gallery: popular and inexpensive mineral fertilizers for strawberries

The rates and method of application of mineral fertilizers are indicated on the packages. All three fertilizers can be applied at 1 tbsp. l per 1 m² of moist and loose soil or dissolve in 10 l of water and water the same area. However, it is better to apply less mineral fertilizers than to exceed their norm: excess nitrogen accumulates in the leaves, and then in the berries in the form of nitrates.

Nitrates are not hazardous to health, but under certain conditions inside the body they are capable of transforming into toxic nitrites. This can happen with low acidity, gastritis, poor hygiene. Infants and the elderly are most sensitive to nitrites. Therefore, juices from fruits grown without chemicals are recommended for children and the elderly.

Top dressing with mullein infusion

If you have no desire to apply chemical mineral fertilizers to the ground, but there is an opportunity to get mullein (manure), then make nitrogen fertilization from it. Mullein is:

  • litter - mixed with peat or straw, it is equally rich in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium;
  • litterless - clean manure containing 50–70% nitrogen.

In the spring, you need nitrogen feeding, so use a bedless mullein, that is, ordinary cow cakes that can be collected where cows walk and graze.

Cows transform grass into valuable fertilizer - mullein or dung

Mullein infusion recipe:

  1. Fill a bucket 1/3 full with fresh cow cakes.
  2. Top with water and cover.
  3. Heat for 5-7 days to ferment.
  4. Add 1 liter of infusion to 10 liters of water and water the strawberries at the rate of 0.5 liters per bush.

Such a solution can be poured over the leaves, then the bushes will additionally receive protection from fungal diseases: powdery mildew, various spots and others.

Feeding with bird droppings

Chicken manure is considered the most valuable and concentrated organic fertilizer. It contains 3-4 times more nutrients than any other natural supplement. The droppings contain nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, trace elements. The infusion is made in the same way as from a mullein, but for irrigation, the concentration should be 2 times less: 0.5 liters of infusion per 10 liters of water. The watering rate remains the same - 0.5 liters per bush.

The proportions are given for infusion from fresh droppings. In stores, it is sold dried, and often it is not droppings that are hidden under the packaging, but chicken humus. Therefore, a solution from store-bought chicken manure should be prepared as indicated on the package.

Use the litter from the store according to instructions on the package

Fertilization in spring with humus

Humus is rotted residues of plant and animal origin. Manure that has lain for 1–2 years is often called humus. But this category also includes compost, rotted bedding from the poultry house, a layer of rotted leaves under the trees. These are all valuable organic fertilizers with a high nitrogen content. They are especially relevant on 2-3-year-old strawberry beds, when overgrown adult bushes begin to bulge out of the ground and rise above it, like bumps. Spread humus along the aisles in such a layer to cover the exposed upper part of the roots. Only hearts and leaves should remain on top.

Humus serves as both fertilizing and mulch at the same time

The lack of feeding with humus, mullein infusions and bird droppings is that it is impossible to determine the exact content of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus in order to reduce or increase the dose of summer and autumn feeding.

Top dressing with wood ash

Ash is a fertilizer that is pointless to apply in the spring without nitrogen fertilization (urea, ammonium nitrate, mullein, droppings). It contains all the micro and macro elements necessary for strawberries, except for the main one - nitrogen. However, when applied simultaneously with nitrogen-containing mixtures, an unnecessary chemical reaction occurs. Ash is an alkali, nitrogen in its presence turns into ammonia and evaporates. It turns out that beneficial substances simply go into the air, and do not fertilize the soil. Therefore, first give the main food with nitrogen content, and after 5-7 days, when it is absorbed by the plants, add ash (a complex of trace elements).

Ash can be obtained by burning not only firewood, but also any plant residues: dry grass, tops, old brooms from a bathhouse, last year's leaves. When different raw materials are burned, a complex of elements different in composition is obtained. One has more potassium, the other has more phosphorus, etc.

Table: content of substances in ash from different materials

A bucket of ash can be obtained by burning dry potato tops collected from one hundred square meters of land

By the way, wood ash is sold in shops for gardeners, but buying it for a whole strawberry plantation is unprofitable, since consumption, compared to mineral fertilizers, is high: 1-2 glasses per bucket of water or 1 m².

Ash feeding can be done in one of the following ways:

  1. Pour a glass of ash into a bucket of water, shake it up and, until the heavy fractions have settled, pour the strawberries under the root (0.5 liters per bush).
  2. Moisten the strawberry leaves with clean water from a watering can. Pour the ashes into a large sieve or colander and dust the bushes. No need to wash off. The leaves will take away the necessary nutrition, the remnants will crumble or be washed off by the rain and go into the ground, to the roots.

Video: about the composition, benefits and use of ash for fertilization

Contrary to the stereotype, ash and slag formed after burning coal are also fertilizers. But it has the opposite effect of wood ash - it deacidifies the soil, and does not alkalize it. It is believed that coal ash contains radioactive elements and heavy metals that accumulate in plants. However, this occurs when the ash concentration in the soil is more than 5%. As an experiment, American researchers fertilized the soil with coal ash for 3 years at a rate of 8 tons per acre of land (200 kg per hundred square meters), which is 1.1%. There was no contamination of groundwater and land, the metal content remained low, and the tomato yield increased by 70%. Such ash contains a lot of potassium, phosphorus, as well as copper, which prevents late blight. But coal ash must be applied simultaneously with organic matter (humus, compost).

Yeast feeding

Another way to improve soil structure without chemicals is to add regular yeast to it. These unicellular microorganisms contribute to the rapid decomposition of organic matter in the ground, that is, they convert it into a form available for plant nutrition. The soil is enriched with vitamins, amino acids, organic iron, microelements, nitrogen and phosphorus are formed. Feeding with yeast improves root formation, and the stronger the roots, the more powerful the bush and the larger the berries on it.

Both dry and compressed yeast are suitable for feeding strawberries.

Fertilizing strawberries with yeast has two features:

  • yeast is introduced only into warm soil, the optimum temperature for their reproduction is above +20 ⁰C;
  • in the process of fermentation, a lot of potassium and calcium are absorbed from the ground, therefore, after watering with a yeast solution, it is imperative to add ash feeding.

The easiest strawberry watering yeast wort recipe:

  1. Pour warm water over the shoulders into a three-liter jar.
  2. Add 4-5 tbsp. l. sugar and a pack of dry yeast (12 g) or 25 g raw (pressed).
  3. Mix everything and put in a warm place for a while, until the yeast starts to play and foam appears on top.
  4. Pour all of the wort into a 10 liter bucket or watering can and top up with water heated in the sun.
  5. Water the strawberries at the root at the rate of 0.5–1 liters per bush.

Video: recipe for yeast feeding

There are recipes in which the wort is allowed to sit for a few days until the yeast stops working. But during the fermentation process, alcohol is formed. The end of fermentation indicates that the yeast has died from its high concentration. It turns out that gardeners feed strawberries with a solution, which includes: alcohol, fusel oils formed during fermentation, and dead yeast. At the same time, the whole point of feeding with yeast is lost - to introduce them into the soil alive and let them work there.

Top dressing with ammonia

Ammonia is sold in pharmacies, but it is an excellent fertilizer because it contains a nitrogen compound - ammonia. In addition, the pungent smell of ammonia scares away many pests from strawberries: strawberry weevil, May beetle larvae, aphids, etc. In addition, this solution has disinfecting properties and kills pathogenic fungi that have settled on strawberry leaves.

The standard pharmacy volume is 40 ml, from half to a whole bottle is spent on a bucket of dressing

For feeding, dilute 2-3 tbsp. ammonia in 10 liters of water, mix and water over the leaves and the ground. Observe safety precautions while preparing the solution. Ammonia is highly volatile and can burn mucous membranes. Do not inhale its vapors. Open the bottle and measure out the correct dose in the fresh air.

Video: super-remedy for strawberries - ammonia

Processing strawberries with iodine

Iodine is found literally everywhere in nature (water, air, earth), but in very small quantities. Iodine is found in all living organisms, including plants, especially in algae. Alcohol solution of iodine is another drug from the pharmacy that gardeners have adopted. It is believed that this antiseptic protects plants from diseases, and once in the ground, it serves as a catalyst for nitrogen metabolism.

Iodine protects strawberries from disease and serves as a catalyst for nitrogen metabolism

Various recipes have been invented and tested, the concentration of iodine in which is very different: from 3 drops to 0.5 hours per 10 liters of water. Is there any benefit with the minimum dose - science has not been proven, with the maximum in practice, side effects in the form of leaf burns were not observed. According to reviews, iodine treatment serves as a good prevention of fungal diseases of strawberries.

Video: using an alcohol solution of iodine to process strawberries

Some gardeners believe that iodine cannot be harmed. However, this element is poisonous and volatile. As a result of inhalation of its vapors, a headache, an allergic cough, a runny nose begins. When ingested, all signs of poisoning appear. If the dose exceeds 3 g, the result can be very disastrous. The iodine solution is not so harmless. Do not overfeed plants. To prepare dressings, select a special spoon, measuring cup, bucket, etc. This applies to all fertilizers and preparations.

Strawberries in the spring need to be fed with fertilizers containing nitrogen. Additionally, in order to speed up all metabolic processes, trace elements are introduced. But do not water the beds with all known and available solutions. It is enough once before flowering to water the strawberries with one of the nitrogen-containing dressings (mineral, infusion of mullein or droppings) and after a few days add wood ash or use a purchased mixture of trace elements (growth stimulant). Use non-herbal formulations with caution, as they are not designed to be used at the dosage used for feeding and can sometimes be dangerous.

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Feeding strawberries in spring - proper care and secrets of a good harvest

Fragrant, tasty and healthy strawberries are a favorite of children and adults. How to grow such a wonderful berry in your garden and get a good harvest?

Many gardeners face difficulties growing strawberries. This berry can be capricious and requires careful maintenance. In order for the berries to be large and sweet, it is necessary to carry out timely feeding of strawberries in spring and in other periods, as well as watering and processing.

Why fertilize strawberries in spring: why garden strawberries need recharge

Strawberries are a very specific berry crop that is very demanding on nutrition and, accordingly, sensitive to nutritional deficiencies.

Garden strawberries require all the main macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). However, it is phosphorus - the most important nutrient for strawberries, however potassium also has significant value.

Sure, nitrogen It is also important for a set of green mass, but you cannot overdo it with nitrogen fertilizers, otherwise the strawberries will drive the foliage, and there will be few berries.

So, phosphorus is responsible not only for the formation of the root system of the plant, but also has a serious effect on the formation of fruits, their quantity and quality (on their large-fruited and sweetness). Moreover, its main amount is consumed in the first phases of development and growth.

Accordingly, due to the lack of phosphorus, the number of ovaries also decreases, which means that the yield decreases sharply, as well as the content of sugars in berries (they cease to be sweet).

That is why it is so important to provide it with phosphorus at all stages of strawberry development.

Since phosphorus fertilizers are difficult to dissolve in the soil, especially if liming (acidity reduction), then they are introduced in the fall with the expectation that they will become more affordable in the next season.

However, if this was not done in the fall, then in the spring it is imperative to prepare easily and quickly assimilated phosphorus fertilizing.

Thus, feeding strawberries in spring, containing a full balanced set of macro- and microelements, is performed for the normal growth and development of the plant, in particular, to increase the yield and the content of sugar substances and vitamins in fruits, as well as drought and frost resistance.

Video: how to properly fertilize strawberries

Watch the video: Top 5 Best Fertilizer For Strawberries You Can Buy In 2020


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